a bacehlor level foundation course for teaching critical thinking to design students 


Design Research . Pedagogy


Design Education . Criticial Thinking


Critical Pedagogy . Entangled History . Visual Culture . Teaching . Discursive Objects . Graphic Design




A manifesto and exemplars of six modules of coursework, both housed in a 214 page book . Exhibition


Self-initiated (M.A. Graduation Project)





How to interest design students in critical thinking? Defining it as the ability to unpack assumptions, I present critical thinking as a method of conceptualising ideas. When intertwined with design skills, these ideas evolve into a non-generic portfolio. Entangled is an educational tool that uses students’ desire to stand out as an incentive to circumvent their critical thinking apathy. As its theoretical framework, Entangled uses an interdisciplinary mix of Critical Pedagogy, History, Visual Culture, awareness of Entanglement, Materiality and Discursive Objects.

The tool, delivered as a modular and flexible coursework, repurposes existing design curricula and infrastructures. It includes tasks to enhance perception; a card game to question assumptions; moderated discussions to encourage critical thinking; and finally, examples and assignments to integrate with design practice.

rethinking design
Building Blocks

Short def: Praxis (Activism and Verbalism), Problem Engagement, Critical Thinking
Explainer Video

Progressive Design

Short def: Materiality, Criticality, Entanglement
Explainer Video

progressive design pedagogy

Explainer video highlighting essential features
Diagrams of the Modules

design research
Research Methods

The tool is envisioned as a permutation and recontextualisation of existing solutions. Thus the project has an interdisciplinary soul. As such, the methodology is polyamorous with theories scavenged from unrelated sources. A variety of the following methods were used as part of the design research—literature review, teaching, interviews, attending interdisciplinary workshops, material exploration, museum visits, visual research, and finally attending talks, lectures, conferences, design festivals, and art fairs.

Field Notes